Some of us may be going through hurt, suffering, pain and misunderstanding. So much about life that can go wrong, will go wrong. There’s no one can say that their life is completely troubles free. We know what the typical answer that we hear when someone (Christian) says to you, “I’m going through a tough time.” What is the instinctive answer will we hear? “You should pray.” “You should trust God.” These are not wrong answers. These are the foundation to what being a Christian is. We do pray. But do you know that locked within that simple answer, sometimes they have more questions. And today one of the ways we are going to deal with is to look at the prayer of prayers. We know the prayer of Jabez, how he prayed for protection, provision, enlarge his coast and God answered his prayer. Those things are good and you know the thing is the greatest prayer is not Jabez’ prayer. The greatest prayer is the Lord’s Prayer because the Lord gave it to us as a gift to the body of Christ. It is something for us to understand what the prayer is all about. It’s found in Matthew chapter 6.
This, then, is how you should pray: 'Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us today our daily bread. Forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one.' (Matthew 6 : 9 – 13).
Notice that this prayer has six different aspects to it. Six pleas, six requests, six petitions. The first three if you notice, are focused toward God and the last three are focused toward ourselves. The first three: Hallowed be Your Name, Your Kingdom come, Your will be done. It is God’s sentence, it is totally, intrinsically toward our Maker. The last three: Give us our daily bread, forgive our sins, lead us not into temptation, deliver us from the evil one. Those last three petitions are focused toward us. We know that for long time the Lord’s prayer has been seen as a formula. If I pray this, I’ll get this. If I do this, I’ll get that. And the truth is Christ has a prayer for us in the Lord’s prayer that is highly practical, but honestly speaking, it is not how to pray but rather it’s why we pray? Now, the reason is this. How many of us love to pray? There’s a big difference between “love to” pray and “have to” pray. There are things that we long to do, there are things that we have to do. The same as when you come back home from work, tired and exhausted, the first thing in your mind is to relax. Would that be doing house work, cleaning the bathroom? Or would it be plunge yourself into a couch, take a nice shower, nice meal, sit in front of TV? Now, between the two, which one do you desire to do? Would you say, “I desire to do home work, I desire to wash the toilet, iron cloths”? Is that a desire? No. Most probably it’s a “has to”, it’s a duty/task. The sad truth is that’s so much of prayer in Christian community has shifted from “I desire to speak to God” to “I have to pray”. So, we fixed it into our schedule, I have to pray, and prayer is no longer an enjoyment but it’s like a torture, and we missed the point of prayer because we see prayer as a duty rather than “I enjoy to do it.” , “I love doing it.”, “I want to speak to my Father in Heaven.” Do you see the big difference? As a Christian we are taught by our parents that prayer must be done. So, we put God in an awkward fashion, and we pray. We just fitting our time, at a certain time in a day we pray, or we pray three times a day before breakfast, lunch and dinner, short and quick prayer, and I’m done! Sometimes how we look at prayer could be how we look at homework, assignment or housework. I’ll get it done fast and I get to do things that I really enjoy. Now, here’s the question. If we say “Lord, I love you.” Then shouldn’t it be an enjoyable thing when we talk to God? And it doesn’t have to be a kind of situation that we constrict ourselves, ”I have to pray from 9PM to 9.05PM or 9.15PM, and I’m done.” Paul tells us to pray unceasingly. It’s not a burden but it’s a delight. If we, Christians don’t see it is a delight to speak with God, no wonder many of our prayers are not answered. Why should God delight in our prayer when we don’t delight to speak with Him? So, it’s a relationship.
Let’s get to the 1st part of the prayer. Jesus says, “Hallowed be Your Name.” It is a desire for God’s Name to be revered. The word ‘hallow’ means ‘to sanctify’, ‘to set apart’. It is about holiness. So, pray that God’s Name is made holy. It is already holy, but the evidence of its holiness comes when you realize it as well. Let Your Name be hallowed not just in my life, in my family, in my work, God’s Name should be given the eminence and prominence. The Bible says that Jesus’ Name is the highest name of all, every knee shall bow, every tongue confesses that Christ is Lord. But, isn’t it interesting that Christ tells us to pray about His Name? The implications are huge because as we pray God’s Name to be holy, actually it changes us.
Let’s get to the 2nd part, it is a desire for God’s reign to be established. It’s found in the statement “Your kingdom come.” It has two ways to work it out. One way is to say, when we pray “Lord, your kingdom come,” has this kingdom come? Yes. When Jesus came to the earth He spoke repeatedly about the kingdom of God, kingdom of heaven. He spoke in parable and story explaining the kingdom of heaven and it has come because Jesus said “Repent, God’s kingdom is nearby.” Why is it nearby? Because Christ came to restore what was broken. And what was broken? Men cohabitated, collaborated with the devil to establish a rule and reign that is completely obstruct God’s rule and reign. Therefore, when Christ came, He wanted to establish His kingdom on earth again. So, when you pray, “Lord, Your kingdom come,” you are praying, ”Lord, I want your rulership to be established in my life. I want You to be Lord and King and be in control, I want You to be completely sovereign in my life, so whatever happen in the context and the situation around me, I do not fret and doubt and worry.” So, when you pray, “Your kingdom come,” you are praying something that He has already begun in you as a Christian and you are praying what’s going to happen. There will come a time when God is going to draw history of mankind to a close and reinstate His full rulership, new heavens, new earth. Can you imagine the prayer that we pray now? See the significant, we don’t just say it because it is the Lord’s prayer but we say it because there’s a deep meaning in it. Now, who is better to reign in our heart? Not a governmental system, jurisdiction system, but the King of kings and Lord of lords! And He cannot fail because He’s God.
Let’s go to the 3rd part. God’s will be done. His will be done on earth as it is in heaven. His will is quite clear, it’s a desire for God’s sovereign plan to be accomplished. Notice something, so far the three petitions , hallowed be Your Name, Your kingdom come, Your will be done, do you realize that God is teaching us to pray not just to Him, but to pray about Him. It seems obvious but it’s not really that obvious. Jesus just told us to pray about God, to praise Him and it is congruent with the Psalms, many of the prayer of prophets, kings which is a praise towards God. Jesus told us to begin our prayer with praising of His Name. “Lord, Your Name is great, Your rule is great, Your will is great.”
Here’s an example to make us understand this. If you were a golf player and given a chance to meet up with Tiger Woods, what would be your reaction? There are many men and women in this earth that we really admire and when we are in their presence we would gush.
Jesus leads us to pray to establish His great name, His rule, His reign, His will and we are basically basking in the greatness of God. When you pray, you are coming to the Father and say, “God, You are amazing, You are awesome, You are great, You are worthy.” That’s what you are doing. Jesus teaches us to pray not only to the Father but pray about the Father’s character. You may say that’s strange but again, as we do it to people whom we respect, honour and admire. The one that you should love and revere the most will never be your parents, your colleagues, or anyone, it has to be someone who completely is pure, never make mistake, can never sin. So, only God Himself deserves that honour.
One thing about praying about God’s will is a dangerous prayer or at least is something we fear, right? If I pray, “Lord, let your will be done in my life, so long as it doesn’t make me suffer, so long as I can keep my house, so long as my kids are healthy.” Do you see how sometimes we shift our prayer? When we say “Your will be done,” here’s the problem, some of us doubt that God is really able to control and move and have our being in a way in our life that truly make sense. The question is, what if I pray God’s will and God says, “I’m going to let you suffer like Job.” Or be betrayed like Joseph by his brothers? When we pray God’s will be done, there’s a fear that is not supernatural and spiritual but a fear that is so much of our flesh. What if God’s will that if I go through a certain thing and I will never want to go through, and so what happen is that we don’t really pray God’s will be done, we pray our will but try to fashion it as His will. “Lord, let your will be done, but I don’t want to lose my job…” What happened is that we compete our will to His will so therefore our prayer reflect so much of the fact that we want our name to be hallowed, we want our own rulership, and we want our will to be done. But Jesus says when you pray, your focus is towards My Father and you say “You are the one in control, You are the one who is great, You are the one that has your will and plan established.” When you pray that, what will happen in your heart? A confidence that you have never had before, especially when you always doubt that God has his best plan for your life as his follower. And so often in the past when things didn’t go my way, how frustrated I was? I prayed 2, 4, 10 times and longer, on my knees, came to church, what happened? And sometimes the problem is when we are not looking at what His rule is that God has a will in such a way that we may not fully understand but when it unravels, you begin to see that He was changing you to be more like Him. If we want God’s will in our life to be a smooth sailing, the question is, why did He not allow His one and only Son to have a smooth sailing life? And you will say, “That’s different, Jesus suppose to suffer for our sins.” But it was God’s will! What if God’s will is for you to suffer for him? Have you ever thought about that? The Bible is very clear that it repeating in the New Testament again and again, if God could not spare his Son, do you think that He will spare us? Jesus died for our sins but if we live in sin, do you think that Father in heaven will spare us from judgement promised to those who are not changed and repent? Do you see that we like to take the good stuff and not look at the bad stuff and thus we minimize prayer and see prayer only as our “service provider”, when I pray, it must be done. But it doesn’t work that way.
Now we come to the next one where our needs being met. The 4th part, “Give us our daily bread”. It is the desire for God to meet our needs daily, the desire for His grace to meet our daily needs. The word “bread” here is actually “substance”. Jesus basically tells us, his disciples, to pray this way, “Lord, Father in heaven, give me my daily substance.” Substance will come in all forms, not just foods, shelter, cloths, love of family, purpose in life. Not just that. Those are important, but as well as spiritual needs. As well as aspect that we never really want to go into but then the word of God will confront us to move into. When we say, “Lord, my daily needs”, but the problem is that sometimes we plan in a way that is not moving in God’s plan, right? We plan by week, month, year. And Jesus just told us something different, He said when you pray, don’t pray weekly, don’t pray in terms of getting your weekly needs but pray in terms of getting your provision daily. That is good but strange because in one hand I got to depend on God daily, but weird because, isn’t God a better planner than I am? Why should I pray for a daily needs and not for a weekly or monthly or yearly needs? And that’s why you need to understand how God’s will is surfaced to his people. Jesus wants us to be so dependent on His Father. That’s why the Bible shows us all those pictures of the sheep and the shepherd, the son and the father. Do you see the dependency? The idea is we are so dependent on God that we won’t be saying, “Tomorrow is Thursday, I will pray for the rest of the week as I don’t have time to pray daily.” Here’s the problem, then you are not being dependent on God daily because you pray one shot and expect that God will answer all. That’s not how Jesus teaches us to pray. He teaches us the dependency on God up to the degree that it has to be daily, step by step, minutes by minutes, day by day. And if I say, “Lord, today I’m thankful for your grace,” and tomorrow I don’t pray, no wonder many Christian say they are dry. It is because we look at God in the way we look at our schedule. I pray by week, so the rest of the week I don’t have to pray. It doesn’t work that way. Similarly, when we come to church we tend to think that I have my dose of spiritual word then it will last me for the rest of the week. Again, it has never worked out. If I live on yesterday’s nutrition, wouldn’t I be hungry today? So, when Jesus says “daily bread”, the same way that daily you eat two or even three meals a day or even more! How much more do we need to take nourishment of the word of God, pray out that nourishment unto Him? That’s why Jesus says, when you pray, ask the Lord daily. One thing that helps us very fast when we start to see this aspect of prayer, it stops us of being a “Martha”. Jesus said to Martha, “You are worry about many things.” Why? Because our mind can be so full with not just today, but next month calendar, next year calendar that we fret and worry all the way until when it comes, actually it’s not so fearful. We actually make imagery and vision and put dreams in our own heart of things that we fear because it’s going to happen next year, next month, next week. But when you pray for daily substance, daily bread, you realise that your heart begin to calm down. Do you know that your physical and emotional well-being are inextricably linked? When you are anxious, your breathe speeds up, you are perspired. The problem is this, you take the weight of the world too much on your shoulder, not realizing that if you really believe that God’s name is great, that God’s kingdom is established, that God’s will be done therefore He’s taking the weight from your shoulder and all you need to do is open up your mouth and be a dependent sheep and say I need food, and He will put the food into your mouth! When you are dependent, you pray daily. Jesus was saying, “You are troubled in many things.” Just focus on one, He told Martha. And to the disciples He was saying, “Do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself.” Look at today, focus on today.
Let’s go to the 5th point. Forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors. This is an amazing statement. It is a desire for God’s grace to save and to sanctify us. Forgiveness from God is synchronized with forgiveness for others that I cannot separate the two. And Jesus doesn’t separate the forgiveness He gave to you with the forgiveness you give to others. Jesus said, “If you do not forgive, my heavenly Father will not forgive you.” One day Peter went up to Jesus and asked, “Lord, how many time should I forgive my brother when he sins against me?” (Matthew 18 : 21). Up to seven times? How many of you have been hurt before? Has someone said some nasty stuff about you? Jesus was accused of a lot of stuff. Peter was asking how many time should I forgive when somebody backstab me, offend me, hurt me? He was thinking the answer is seven. First time ok, second time ok, third time until seventh time, that’s it. There’s a limit for me to forgive. Jesus gave him a response completely not what Peter expected and Jesus said, “I tell you, not seven times, but up to seventy times seven.” In other words Jesus was saying, you forgive, you forgive, you forgive…., it’s a consistent forgiveness on your part even to the person who has betrayed you. And then Jesus told this parable :
Therefore, the kingdom of heaven is like a king who wanted to settle accounts with his servants. As he began the settlement, a man who owed him ten thousand talents was brought to him. Since he was not able to pay, the master ordered that he and his wife and his children and all that he had be sold to repay the debt. The servant fell on his knees before him. 'Be patient with me,' he begged, 'and I will pay back everything.' The servant's master took pity on him, cancelled the debt and let him go. But when that servant went out, he found one of his fellow- servants who owed him a hundred denarii. He grabbed him and began to choke him. 'Pay back what you owe me!' he demanded. His fellow- servant fell to his knees and begged him, 'Be patient with me, and I will pay you back.' But he refused. Instead, he went off and had the man thrown into prison until he could pay the debt. When the other servants saw what had happened, they were greatly distressed and went and told their master everything that had happened. Then the master called the servant in. 'You wicked servant,' he said, 'I cancelled all that debt of yours because you begged me to. Shouldn't you have had mercy on your fellow- servant just as I had on you?' In anger his master turned him over to the jailers to be tortured, until he should pay back all he owed. This is how my heavenly Father will treat each of you unless you forgive your brother from your heart. (Matthew 18 : 23 – 35).
The prison in the parable represents hell. Jesus told the parable connecting not just His forgiveness to us, but our forgiveness to others. Therefore, I cannot say, my Christian walk is all about me, having my needs to be met. No. It’s all about His meeting my needs for forgiveness, for reconciliation, and then I become a conduit for that same mercy. He reconcile me to the Father, I’ll be reconciled to others. This is a hard message because the truth is there are bitterness and hurts in our heart because some people have really beaten us bad. Some people have done that in the way that we looking back and say “How can they?” “Why should I go through this injustice?” And you know how our flesh reacts when we get so angry and disturbed. And what we’re going to do is fight back. It’s kind of mentality that we understand because our flesh comes out like a raging bull. Here’s the point of question that Peter asked, “How many time should I forgive?” And Jesus said, “You forgive endlessly because your heavenly Father forgives you endlessly.” Now you begin to see the correlation that we cannot treat the forgiveness of God lightly. If I say, “Lord, please forgive me,” then by virtue of asking of His forgiveness, I have to be prepared to say, “Lord, please help me to forgive others.” Receiving His forgiveness and giving of forgiveness is so integrally linked. Jesus said, if you don’t forgive, My Father will treat you in a way that shows that He will not forgive. So, the Lord’s Prayer is not a formula on how to get everything you want even in your flesh. Jesus teaches this prayer, forgive us our sins as we forgive others, it’s an appeal to the Lord, would you give me the grace to not only be forgiven but would you humble me so that guy who says nasty things, that my husband who hurt me bad, that my father who abuse me…., I can forgive. How do I know if I have forgiven? When I no longer feel that raging urge to avenge myself.
Let’s go to the 6th point. Lead us not into temptation but deliver us from the evil one. It is a desire of God’s grace to overcome sins and the devil. The first 3 parts of the Lord’s prayer are talking about who He is, the next 3 parts focus on who we suppose to be. Do you realize that in these six petitions, only one focuses on what we love to pray, our daily bread. But the other five focus so much on changing us. If we take the six petitions properly, you actually get to see that we change more. Means we love to say that prayer changes the hands of God, prayer touches God’s heart and moves His hands. But the question is, who does the prayer change more? Does your prayer change God more or does your prayer change you more? The answer is, prayer changes us more because God never changed. The Bible says, Christ is the same yesterday, today and forever. He loves to hear our prayer, He wants to meet our needs. But here’s the thing, when we pray, our prayer reflects so much of what is going on in our heart. When I pray, “Lord, all I want is my needs to be met, my name to be hallowed, my kingdom to be established, all I want is that all my desires will come to pass.” What happen is, I’m not actually praying with the blue print of God’s plan, but I pray my own plan. The prayer itself is the evidence, Hallowed be Your name, it’s His name, not our name. Your will be done, not our will. Then we shift even for daily bread, we are not praying to store up in the winter, so we pray for daily bread. We are constantly dependent! Then at point number 5, you realize that not only do we pray as a consumer of His forgiveness, we pray as a giver of that same forgiveness. How do you know that you can forgive? “Lord, I’m tempted to be angry at someone that against me, but please lead me not into the temptation, but deliver me from evil.”
Many times when our prayers do not get answered, we get so disappointed and discouraged. We think that God is the one that moved, but we moved. Those times were so closed with God because God is always near all the time, but we feel that God is far away. God never changed His position, He is everywhere. We shifted location, address, shifted our heart, but if we look and align our heart back through the Lord’s prayer, again look at the Lord’s prayer not as a formula on how to get what we want but look at the Lord’s prayer as the reason why we pray. I pray because I want God’s name to be glorified in my life, I pray because I want His kingdom to be established in my life. I pray because God’s will should be done in my life, I pray because I have daily needs too. I pray because I need to be forgiven and also to forgive others, I pray because I want to overcome sins. Jesus teaches us an amazing prayer. The first 3 parts is who He is, the last 3 parts is who we are to become. I become fully dependent, I become a conduit of His grace, I become an over comer of sins. And that’s what God’s desire for Christians.
Now, how do we know that our prayers are being heard? How do we know that God really is listening? Do you know that the answer is also found in the Lord’s prayer? Because Jesus gives us the basis, the foundation how our prayers are answered. It is in the first statement. The basis of our prayer is found in the four simple words ‘Our Father in heaven’. Our Father, a person. Heaven, a place. ‘Our Father’ denotes closeness, ‘heaven’, farness where the Father is, where we shall be. Here’s the basis how our prayers are answered. When we cry out to our Father, when we pray to the Father, will heavenly Father hear the prayer of his children?
“If a son asks for bread from any father among you, will he give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, will he give him a serpent instead of a fish? Or if he asks for an egg, will he offer him a scorpion? If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him!” (Luke 11:11–13).
If we first heard Jesus’ teaching on how to pray, if we were living in those days, if we were a Jew, do you know how amazed we would be? If we study the Old Testament, we will see that all the prayers prayed never addressed God as Father, but Jehovah God. And then Jesus has the audacity to call God, Father. You might say, but Jesus can because He’s the son of God, why can I? Well, Jesus just told us, we can because He said to us, Christians, this is how you pray, “Our Father…” His Father is also our Father. How in the first place we can move from calling God as Yahweh, Jehovah to Father? We have to go back to the point of the cross. At the cross Jesus was our older brother. Through His death at the cross we are made His brothers/sisters because we are adopted into the family of God. No longer we look at God as someone that just to be feared. He is the God who has personal relationship with His follower. And when we pray the six petitions in the Lord’s Prayer, we are appealing not to someone who will not hear but we are appealing to our own Father. Like a loving parents towards their baby who will wake up and rush to him/her at 2 AM in the morning because he/she cries out. Your heart goes for the person that you love. Your child doesn’t have to say too much, just call out and you rush because you love him. When you cry out, will your Father in heaven not hear your prayer?
There are two types of prayer that Jesus talked about in the passage below.
5 “And when you pray, you shall not be like the hypocrites. For they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Assuredly, I say to you, they have their reward. 6 But you, when you pray, go into your room, and when you have shut your door, pray to your Father who is in the secret place; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly.7 And when you pray, do not use vain repetitions as the heathen do. For they think that they will be heard for their many words. 8 “Therefore do not be like them. For your Father knows the things you have need of before you ask Him. (Matthew 6 : 5 – 8).
The last sentence of verse 8 launch to verse 9 onwards (The Lord’s Prayer) shows so much of the Father’s heart. Then why should I ask? Because He wants to hear your prayer. He wants you to be dependent on Him. He wants you to look to Him. He wants you to turn your eyes towards Him. He wants your heart to be fixed on Him. And so that’s why we pray. He knows our prayer need but we still pray anyway because He wants to hear us and we want to talk to Him. Verse 5 – 7, this is the prayer of people who don’t see God as Father. Why do they babble in many words? Jesus just said that there are some who pray a super long prayer, and it’s not that there’s problem with long prayer, but the reason why Jesus said this because some of these guys pray very long prayer because they don’t have a relationship with Him. Therefore they think by virtue of the length, God will hear their prayer. But it doesn’t work that way. I could pray for hours and don’t see God as a Father and I could cry out, “Father, help me…” and He hears my seconds long prayer rather than my hours of prayer. In the above passage Jesus was saying the reason why people pray, because they want to be seen by others. They love human praises. But as Christian we pray because we want to feel the heart beat of God and we want God’s heart to be moved by our own heart. Now you see the connectivity of one hour of prayer without seeing God as Father, without seeing His forgiveness in your life, without realizing His greatness, it doesn’t beat one second of prayer when you cry, “Father, help me…” and He hears your prayer.
1 Kings 18 : 21 – 39 tells us not only the Lord our God is the true and living God and is mighty in power but He is the God who answers His children’s prayer!
Elijah went before the people and said, “How long will you waver between two opinions? If the LORD is God, follow him; but if Baal is God, follow him.” But the people said nothing. Then Elijah said to them, “I am the only one of the LORD’s prophets left, but Baal has four hundred and fifty prophets. Get two bulls for us. Let Baal’s prophets choose one for themselves, and let them cut it into pieces and put it on the wood but not set fire to it. I will prepare the other bull and put it on the wood but not set fire to it. Then you call on the name of your god, and I will call on the name of the LORD. The god who answers by fire—he is God.” Then all the people said, “What you say is good.” Elijah said to the prophets of Baal, “Choose one of the bulls and prepare it first, since there are so many of you. Call on the name of your god, but do not light the fire.” So they took the bull given them and prepared it. Then they called on the name of Baal from morning till noon. “Baal, answer us!” they shouted. But there was no response; no one answered. And they danced around the altar they had made. At noon Elijah began to taunt them. “Shout louder!” he said. “Surely he is a god! Perhaps he is deep in thought, or busy, or travelling. Maybe he is sleeping and must be awakened.” So they shouted louder and slashed themselves with swords and spears, as was their custom, until their blood flowed. Midday passed, and they continued their frantic prophesying until the time for the evening sacrifice. But there was no response, no one answered, no one paid attention. Then Elijah said to all the people, “Come here to me.” They came to him, and he repaired the altar of the LORD, which had been torn down. Elijah took twelve stones, one for each of the tribes descended from Jacob, to whom the word of the LORD had come, saying, “Your name shall be Israel.” With the stones he built an altar in the name of the LORD, and he dug a trench around it large enough to hold two seahs of seed. He arranged the wood, cut the bull into pieces and laid it on the wood. Then he said to them, “Fill four large jars with water and pour it on the offering and on the wood.” “Do it again,” he said, and they did it again. “Do it a third time,” he ordered, and they did it the third time. The water ran down around the altar and even filled the trench. At the time of sacrifice, the prophet Elijah stepped forward and prayed: “LORD, the God of Abraham, Isaac and Israel, let it be known today that you are God in Israel and that I am your servant and have done all these things at your command. Answer me, LORD, answer me, so these people will know that you, LORD, are God, and that you are turning their hearts back again.” Then the fire of the LORD fell and burned up the sacrifice, the wood, the stones and the soil, and also licked up the water in the trench. When all the people saw this, they fell prostrate and cried, “The LORD—he is God! The LORD—he is God!” (1 Kings 18 : 21 – 39).